Africa Environmental Review Journal 2022-11-19T14:08:56+00:00 E. K. Ucakuwun Prof. Open Journal Systems <p>Africa Environmental Review is a publication of the <a title="visit University of eldoret website" href="">School of Environmental Studies, University of Eldoret</a>.</p> Evaluation of Management Practices for Sustainability of Water Resources in Arror River Watershed, Kenya 2022-11-19T08:32:08+00:00 C. C. Sang <p><em>Water is an indispensable natural resource that is critical for sustaining life and ensuring healthy ecosystems. Since it is dynamic in nature with an ever-increasing demand, its sustainable use requires an integrated management approach. Impacts of water scarcity such as health problems, limiting economic and agricultural development and stress on ecosystems needs water resources to be managed sustainably. To understand this phenomenon, the study conducted sought to evaluate the various management practices for sustainable watershed and water resource management in Arror River watershed, Elgeyo Marakwet County. The primary data source was were remotely sensed data and socio-economic data while climate, river discharge and soil data formed the secondary data. Field surveys and questionnaires were used to collect information about indigenous and contemporary watershed management and conservation practices. GIS information was integrated with the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, to analyse the various management practices in the watershed. The results from the field survey showed that the local communities in Arror river watershed had their traditional ways of managing water catchments with most respondents (89%) reporting the prohibition of cutting trees. They also reported some modern watershed management methods with agroforestry being the most popular (67.5%). Various scenarios were explored in both SWAT and WEAP models. The results from the SWAT model on the application of terracing and contour planting revealed a decrease in the annual mean flow of 15.4% and 24.1%, respectively while a combination of both revealed a reduction of 19.04%. The WEAP model scenarios revealed that the minimum ‘flow requirement’ scenario would yield the highest mean annual flows (85,113,000 m3 p.a) while the ‘irrigated agriculture increased’ scenario would yield the lowest mean annual flows over the 28 years (2013-2040). The ‘irrigated agriculture increased’ scenario posted the highest mean annual demand and the highest mean annual unmet demand. The ‘dam construction’ scenario revealed no unmet demand. The management practices that would enhance the sustainable management of the watershed include: contour farming, construction of a reservoir, maintenance of minimum environmental flows in the river, agroforestry and afforestation which are then recommended for Arror River watershed. Water managers and all stakeholders should understand how different drivers of change affect hydrology and therefore affect the related water demands and functions by the inhabitants in the basin so as to make informed decisions on the sustainable management of the watershed. The findings of this study are therefore intended to contribute towards sustainable watershed management.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Hepatocyte Alterations and Impact on Reproduction among New Zealand White Female Rabbits Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Aflatoxin 2022-11-19T08:49:26+00:00 J. B. Kitilit D. M. Mwaniki G. N. Magak <p><em>Aflatoxin are poisonous compounds produced by fungi found in cereal grains and forage harvested or stored under humid-warm environmental conditions. Consumption of doses amounting to 20 -120 ppb of body weight per day can cause poisoning through an immediate damage on liver hepatocytes. Harmful effects of aflatoxin include their interference with both animal product production and reproductive functions. The current study sought to determine the histopathology of the liver by aflatoxin contained in the diet consumed by New Zealand white rabbits. Sixteen rabbits kept in cages were fed diets containing four levels of aflatoxin in four treatments 1 (0- level of aflatoxin), treatment 2 (100 ppb aflatoxin), treatment 3 (200 ppb aflatoxin) and treatment 4 (400 ppb aflatoxin) for a period of forty five days. The rabbits aged three months were kept in cages inside a housing structure with sufficient ventilation and 12 hour lighting daily. At the end of the feeding period, one rabbit from each treatment group was taken to anatomy and pathological laboratory, where it was humanely sacrificed and the liver harvested for histological examination. The liver tissue was sectioned and mounted on slides for microscopy. The results showed effects on the liver in all the treatment diets that contained aflatoxin. Marked focal inflammation and tissue infiltration in the periportal area of the liver were observed. The liver is the organ with the highest activation of oestrogen receptors in an animal’s body, but is dependent on the intake of sufficient amount of amino acids by the animal through its diet. Sufficient amount of oestrogen receptors, activate the secretion of Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), which expresses itself in the uterus and ovary to cause the release of estrogen and synthesis of Insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1), the former activates the hypothalamus to release gonadotropic releasing hormone, which target the anterior pituitary gland for the release of gonadotrophs. Aflatoxin therefore, caused inflammatory reactions on hepatocytes and cell infiltration in rabbits in treatment 2, 3 and 4, but the pathological level was higher for the latter two treatments. Rabbit diets must not contain more than 100 ppb of aflatoxin to avoid its general effects on their reproduction.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Spatial and Temporal Variability of Phosphates, Nitrates and Selected Physico-Chemical Parameters of River Nzoia 2022-11-19T08:56:40+00:00 S. J. Tarus J. L. Kituyi F. K. Segor <p><em>Several agricultural activities are practiced within the River Nzoia catchment area, most of which involve application of chemicals in form of fertilisers and pesticides. Most of these chemicals end up in the river in form of phosphates and nitrates, thus affecting the aquatic life of the river. Spatial and temporal variability of major pollutant loads of the River Nzoia has been determined with a view of assessing the safety of river. This study reports the current contaminant loads determined in River Nzoia catchment area, which were; nitrates (NO<sub>3</sub>-N) and phosphates (PO<sub>4</sub>-P), the physico-chemical parameters; pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total dissolved solids (TDS). All these were tested in the three matrices; the soil, sediments and water. The stratified samples were collected from eight (8) different sites from Kitale down to Mumias in the River Nzoia in both the dry and wet seasons. The samples were then digested by the wet method and analyzed for nitrates and phosphates using the colorimetric technique. Titrimetric method was used for COD analysis while the DO meter was used to measure the BOD based on incubation. TDS was analyzed using the evaporation vs weight change method. pH, temperature, conductivity and DO were determined in situ using respective meters. Collected data were analysed descriptively using MS Excel spreadsheets and statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. Comparison for variations between the sampling sites was done using one way ANOVA. Levels of nitrates in water were found to be higher than the maximum permissible levels in water samples from Cherangani [12.30 </em><em>± 0.05 mg/L], Moi’s Bridge [14.4</em><em>±1.15 mg/L], Pan-Paper [17.2 </em><em>± 0.15 mg/L] and Mumias [15.3 </em><em>± 0.35 mg/L]. However, phosphates, temperature, DO, BOD, conductivity and TDS were within permissible limits in all the sites while COD [51.0 </em><em>± 13.7 mg/L] at Mumias site was found to be relatively above the recommended limit. There seems to be an accumulation of some pollutants in River Nzoia as it progresses towards Lake Victoria. Therefore, control measures should be taken within the catchment area to avoid the river manifesting serious environmental pollution. </em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Evaluation of Nutritional and Phytochemical Profiles of Pumpkin Seed and Flesh (Cucurbita genus) Collections from Baringo, Uasin Gishu and Elgeyo Marakwet Counties 2022-11-19T09:44:15+00:00 M. Tanui J. J. Binott E. J. Too O. G. Dangasuk <p><em>Pumpkin (Cucurbita genus) is one of the indigenous crops grown globally. Cucurbits are nutrient rich vital food for subsistence farmers and urban consumers. There is currently little knowledge of nutritional, phytochemical and health benefits of pumpkins. This study aimed at evaluating nutritional and phytochemical profiles of 27accessions collected from Baringo, Uasin Gishu and Elgeyo Marakwet counties. Selection was based on physiological parameters. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and flame photometry determined quantities of mineral elements. Phytochemical contents were determined following the procedures of Harborne (1973), Obadoni and Ochuko (2001), Boham and Kocipai (1974) and Folin Denis Colometric method. Proximal compositions were determined using standard methods. SPSS Inc. software version 22.0 (p≤0.05), Duncans Multiple Range Test and Pearson correlations matrix were used in data analyses. Seeds had higher minerals than fruit flesh. (mg/100g) Ca 46.197±6.315, Zn 0.746±0.239, Cu 0.710±0.207, Fe 12.490±1.282, Mg 1.308±10.923, Mn 8.131±0.341, P, Na, K; 0.687±0.164, 103.339±1.362, 149.074±23.506 respectively. Fruit flesh had; Ca 21.751±4.604, Zn 0.086±0.033, Cu 0.070±0.020, Fe 6.920±1.052, Mg 0.367±7.917, Mn 5.633±0.099, Na 71.256±4.427, P 0.209±0.074, K 128.966±17.035. Significant positive correlations were found between: flavonoid in seed and alkaloid in flesh (r = 0.343), tannin in seeds and alkaloids in flesh (r = 0.326) and seed (r = 0.286); tannins in flesh and alkaloids in seed (r = 0.278; saponin in seed and alkaloid in flesh (r = 0.268);saponin in seed significantly correlated with tannin in flesh (r = 0.383) and saponin in seed(r = 0.343); Flavonoids in seed and flesh had significant negative correlation(r = -0.273). Highest proximal contents were observed in: Moisture; 8.162<sup>a</sup> (TUL 041) seeds, KAP 011 flesh (14.533<sup>a)</sup>. Ash was 7.00<sup>a</sup> in KAP 003 seeds, CHEP 1 had 19.050<sup>a</sup>. Lipids were 46.757<sup>q</sup> in MEG 052 seeds while KAP 011flesh had 9.400<sup>a</sup>. Proteins in CHEP 2 seeds (38.424<sup>ab</sup>), 27.895a (EMS 225 flesh). Crude fibre (25.246<sup>a)</sup> in KAPS 022, 5.800<sup>a </sup>in RAN 1 flesh. Carbohydrate in NGE 064 seeds (69.217%), EMS 223 flesh (14.255%). CHEP 1 seeds, KAP 011 flesh are good sources of (P, K Na, and Ca). NGE 064 seeds and EMS 223 flesh are excellent sources of carbohydrates, CHEP 2 seeds and EMS 225 flesh are reliable sources of proteins. Breeders should consider pumpkins with high nutritional values to be used in formulating feeds and supplements for infants, expectant mothers and patients. The same will also be helpful in curbing malnutrition.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Influence of Tourism Attractions on Tourism Sustainability in Selected Parts of Nandi County, Kenya 2022-11-19T10:00:29+00:00 J. J. Talam J. Makomere G. Ariya <p><em>Tourists are satisfied when their needs are met in a destination. When destinations lack attractions, it is hard to be called a tourism entity. Natural beauty and climate among others are a vital aspect that influence vacationers to visit or revisit a given destination. These features entice individuals to the destination and also contribute to the general experience of the tour thereby sustaining tourism. The research intended to assess the influence of tourism attractions on tourism sustainability in selected parts of Nandi County. The results for the study could give a guideline to the improvement of tourism dimensions towards sustainability in Nandi County. The study employed a survey research design. The target population was 598 visitors with a sample size of 239. Questionnaires were used to gather data from tourists visiting the selected parts. Validity was realized through selection of study sample that was of the utmost representative group. Cronbach’s alpha was used as a measure of reliability. Descriptive statistics were employed in SPSS Version 2021. There were 6 tourist destinations visited in selected parts of Nandi County<a name="_Toc77452849"></a><a name="_Toc77453541"></a><a name="_Toc85879943"></a><a name="_Toc85880450"></a><a name="_Toc64718525"></a><a name="_Toc64718651"></a><a name="_Toc69234160"></a> with 172 respondents sampled; 158 (91.9%) Kenyans, 4 (2.3%) German, 4 (2.3%) Indians, 2 (1.2%) from USA while 4 (2.3%) were either from New York, Nigeria and Brazil. <a name="_Toc64718526"></a><a name="_Toc64718652"></a><a name="_Toc69234161"></a><a name="_Toc77452850"></a><a name="_Toc77453542"></a><a name="_Toc85879944"></a><a name="_Toc85880451"></a>In regards to gender, majority were male (65.1%). Most respondents (36.0%) were aged from 21 to 30 years. Majority of the respondents, (97.7%) had formal education. Out of the total respondents, 17.4% had visited Diguna falls, 3.5% Kaptumo Africa Native Court, 14.5% Koitalel Samoei Museum, 26.7% Ngaunat caves, 14.0% Eden spring guest house and 23.8% Chepkiit falls. The respondents were asked to state how valuable was cultural dimensions to their visit in Nandi County; 11.0% indicated that they were not very valuable, 9.3% not valuable, 22.1% undecided, 29.1% valuable while 28.5% very valuable. On natural attractions, 4.1% revealed that they were not very valuable 2.3% not valuable, 15.7% were undecided, 27.9% valuable and 50.0% very valuable. On built attractions, 5.8% opined not very valuable, 9.9% not valuable, 27.3% were undecided, 30.8% valuable while 26.2% very valuable. In conclusion, cultural attractions were found to be the most valuable to tourists visit in Nandi County. The findings revealed that tourism attractions have an influence on the tourism sustainability in selected parts of Nandi County. The study recommended more studies to be done to establish the influence of tourisms accessibility on tourism sustainability in selected parts of Nandi County, Kenya.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Citizen Perception of Green Spaces Prioritization in Urban Kenya: The Case of Kisumu City and Eldoret Municipality 2022-11-19T10:18:59+00:00 J. Ng’etich A. Kiplagat J. Khazenzi K. Odhiambo M. J. Lagat <p><em>Kenya is currently experiencing rapid rate of urbanization which is considered as one of the highest in the region, with over 30% of its population living in urban areas. It is projected that by 2050 Kenya will be predominantly an urban nation as half of its population will be living in cities and urban areas. This underscores the need for urban planners and managers to address themselves to the issues of provision of physical and socio-economic infrastructure services to match population growth, one of them being planning for green spaces. Green spaces are sacrosanct as they satisfy the socio-economic and environmental demands of urban dwellers. Availability of green spaces is</em> <em>considered as an indicator of measuring sustainable cities, smart cities and urban resilience. The Kenyan Urban planning norms recognizes sufficient availability of green spaces as a criterion for classification of cities and urban areas. Using case studies of Kisumu city and Eldoret Municipality, the study was aimed at examining the perceptions of citizens on green spaces planning. The study is underpinned by basic needs theory which informs ranking of priority needs of communities. A total of 1030 users of green spaces who visited seven green spaces in Kisumu City and two green spaces in Eldoret Municipality were randomly selected for interviews with the purpose of soliciting data on their views on the place of green spaces according to their felt needs.</em> <em>Based on frequency analysis, 28% of respondents indicated that education should be put as the first priority, followed by job creation in industrial areas (23%), and housing provision in residential areas (21%). Provision of water and sanitation services (10%),improvement of business environment(7%),and transport infrastructure (5%) ranked fourth, fifth and sixth respectively while 4% of the Respondents ranked both provision of green spaces and public purposes to be in the seventh and the last position in their scheme of priorities .The study concludes that green space planning is not considered as an immediate need by citizens in urban Kenya, and hence the need for planners and urban managers to initiate urban planning forums to enlighten citizens on the value of green spaces.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Correlation between Chlorpyrifos Residues and Calcium Levels in Milk from Dairy Farms in Nakuru County, Kenya 2022-11-19T10:48:26+00:00 M. N. Asamba P. S. Oshule S. Essuman N. Atego L. Chimbevo J. H. Nderitu J. Mapesa <p><em>The use of organophosphate (OP) pesticides in dairy farming has increased due to their availability in the market and low prices. Chlorpyrifos (0, 0 – diethyl 0 - (3, 5, 6 – trichloro – 2 - pyridyl phosphonothioate; CP) is a medium-risk acaricide for humans whose widespread use in agriculture creates various health concerns. In dairy farms, extensive use of CP causes milk contamination and alteration of the composition and chemistry of dairy products. Few studies have examined the impact of CP residues on calcium levels in milk. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of Chlorpyrifos organophosphate on calcium levels in milk. Fresh milk samples were obtained from 15 Nakuru County, Kenya, dairy farms. HPLC was used to detect and measure CP levels in the milk samples, while calcium concentration was assessed through UV-VIS Spectrophotometry. The results show that approximately 53% of raw milk samples had significant detectable chlorpyrifos levels. All the positive milk samples exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL). Calcium concentrations in the sampled milk from Nakuru County were not significantly higher or lower than the reference levels. A weak and negative correlation was found between calcium concentration and Chlorpyrifos residue levels (r = -0.2). These findings suggest that milk contamination with organophosphates affects their composition. Therefore, there is a need to properly handle milk to avoid contamination by chlorpyrifos and other pesticides used in agriculture. Besides, milk should be appropriately processed to reduce pesticide residues and metabolites in the final products. </em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Review on the Socio-Economic Impacts of Trypanosomiasis 2022-11-19T10:53:57+00:00 C. Kikwai M. Ngeiywa <p><em>Trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease that causes Animal African Trypanosomiasis, also known as nagana in animals and zoonotic Human African Trypanosomiasis, also referred to as sleeping sickness in humans. Tsetse flies are the primary vectors of African Trypanosomiasis, a disease of paramount importance to both humans and animals across the continent of Africa. The disease can also be mechanically transmitted by a number of biting dipteran flies such as Stomoxys calcitrus and Tabanus species.</em><em> Tsetse fly occurs in 37 sub-Saharan countries covering nearly 10 million km<sup>2</sup>, an area approximately equivelent to one-third of Africa’s total land area. The fly and the disease occur in the world’s poorest countries with 32 out of the 37 affected countries being ranked the poorest in the world. </em><em>In Kenya, approximately 138,000 km<sup>2</sup> of land is tsetse infested with 38 out of the 47 counties being affected. Tsetse infested land coverage is roughly 25 percent of Kenya’s arable land, which limits livestock production and agricultural development affecting over 11 million Kenyans who are at risk of the disease. Tsetse infestation and trypanosomiasis infection have negative impacts on wildlife health and therefore affects tourism. In the past ten years, Human African Trypanosomiasis cases have been reported in tourists who had visited National Parks/Reserves and also among the local populations. Importation of costly drugs for treatment affects foreign exchange while the disease impacts on the country’s agriculture due to reduced milk and meat production, reduced live animal disposal value and reduced work efficiency of oxen used for cultivation. African Trypanosomiasis is considered the most important economically debilitating diseases which mostly contribute to poverty, hunger, and underdevelopment in the affected countries. Human infections affect labour resources and impacts negatively on school children performance which has an effect on their professional advancement later in life. In conclusion,African Trypanosomiasis poses serious threats to the lives and livelihoods of rural communities in Kenya. Therefore there is a priority need to control the disease to open up the affected underdeveloped areas to economic improvement and thus improve the lives of the residents.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Evaluation of Anaerobic Microbial Community and Physicochemical Parameters in Small Scale Biodigesters within Uasin Gishu County 2022-11-19T11:01:40+00:00 F. A. Oseso S. Rono P. Kipsumbai <p><em>Anaerobic digestion is a sequential biological activity that accepts the efficient capture of methane for energy production.</em><em> The dependence on fossil and wood fuels as a primary energy source has led to multitudes of problems such as global warming, environmental degradation and human respiratory health complications. The objective of this research was to characterize, identify and study physicochemical requirement of the digesters in relation to methanogenic bacteria identified from cow dung and improve their efficiency in biogas production. Six study sites were selected within Uasin Gishu County, opande, energy, beta farm, radar, nettos and langas, which varied in both volume and biogas production capacity. The cow dung which had been fed to biodigesters were collected aseptically in sterile jars and bacteria were isolated in Biotechnology laboratory, University of Eldoret under anaerobic conditions in a Gas pak jar at a mesophilic temperature of 35<sup>o</sup>C for seven days. Pure isolates were obtained using streak plate method and evaluation of physicochemical parameters were done in situ. Identification of isolates was done using cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Laboratory scale set up of anaerobic digester for biogas production was done to evaluate their efficiency in biogas production. Three, 500ml erlernymer flask were half filled with cow dung and inoculated with Methanococcus sp. and Methanosaeta sp. separately and a combination of both isolates. This was done in triplicate with different inoculum ratios at 10:500, 20:500 and 30:500 mls, respectively and a control experiment with cow dung alone and allowed to run for 31 days. Gas generated was collected by volume displacement of water and measured at an interval of 0:10, 11:21 and 21:31 days. The temperature and the pH were regulated and monitored regularly. The study identified 7 different anaerobic bacteria species as Methanococcus, Sulfolobus, Methanosaeta, Methanospirillium, Methanosarcina, Methanomicrobium and Methanothrix species. The most predominant methanogenic bacterial strains, which occurred in at least 5 digesters were Methanococcus sp. and Methanosaeta sp which also produced the highest volume of biogas with maximum production being observed in 21-31 days at a ratio of 30:500. Methanococcus sp. and Methanosaeta sp. synergistic activity yielded the highest gas production of 74.23 mls versus 22.50 mls in control and 64.23 mls versus 50 mls from Methanosaeta and Methanococcus sp. respectively. In conclusion, study on the 6 bio digesters showed that physicochemical parameters plays a paramount role in biogas production and should be maintained at an optimum range. The study shows that predominant methanogens Methanococcus sp. and Methanosarcina sp. when inoculated in the digesters increase the quantity of biogas produced. Research recommends that digesters encompasses diverse group of methanogens which works in syntrophic association in the fermentation process thus should be maintained for increase in biogas production.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Ecological Impacts and Management Strategies of Acacia melanoxylon Species in the African Ecosystems 2022-11-19T11:12:32+00:00 T. K. Kiptoo J. L. Ole Kiyapi <p><em>Alien invasive plants can alter ecosystem services, reducing biodiversity and having negative social and economic consequences. The leguminous Acacia melanoxylon is one of the most problematic acacia tree species native to Australia on a global scale. The invasive species is currently invading the forest ecosystem in Africa, with severe consequences for ecosystem services. There have been very few reviews of the ecological effects of Acacia melanoxylon species on the ecosystems of African forests. Consequently, it is necessary to comprehend its ecological effects and management strategies to mitigate its negative effects. Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were used to conduct an exhaustive bibliographic search for scientific and technical articles as well as government documents on Acacia melanoxylon species invasions in African countries and documented management strategies. The ecological effects include reduced species diversity and local seed dispersal of the tree layer. The rapid spread of A. melanoxylon in forest areas has the potential to alter the forest structure and composition. Additionally, it affects the growth and spread of forest plant species. The proposed management strategies of A. melanoxylon include uprooting young shoots and applying herbicide to the stumps of mature trees to prevent regrowth. Herbicide-coated bark (basal bark methods) can also be effective. Ring barking can be utilized to kill large trees. Young plants can be sprayed with foliar solutions. The study provides baseline information regarding the ecological impacts and management strategies of Acacia melanoxylon, which serves as a management tool for the preservation of native species. The study recommends implementing policies, legislation, and incentives to guide public and private investment in controlling invasive alien plant species and passive or active restoration as needed. Additionally, this study recommends further research to address the deficiency in species management and its ecological impact on the Eastern and Southern parts of Africa.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Mastitis Incidences and Antibiotic Resistance in Bovines in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya 2022-11-19T11:32:42+00:00 A. A. O. Nyakiti G. W. O. Oliech O. Osano <p><em>Mastitis is an inflammatory reaction induced by a bacterial infection of the udder tissue. Bovine mastitis is one of the terrible diseases that causes enormous losses to the global dairy business. Antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria on farms in developing countries, where the bulk of livestock is kept on smallholdings, are poorly understood. There is a need to understand the factors that contribute to the increased occurrence of mastitis in order to control it. Consequently, this study evaluated mastitis incidences and antibiotic resistance in Bovines in Uasin Gishu County, Kenyan. A random sample consisting of one hundred and fifty lactating dairy cows; fifty each from three purposively chosen study sites, from several dairy farms across Uasin Gishu County- Kenya were tested in a study of mastitis. Causative microbes were identified both by cultural morphology and biochemical tests. Culture and sensitivity testing using the disc diffusion method were done to determine their in vitro resistance to various antimicrobial agents. The Draminski Mastitis Detector was used to screen udder quarters for subclinical mastitis while a strip cup and visual examination were used to detect visible changes to the udder and /or the milk for clinical mastitis. Out of the 76 positive samples obtained at screening, 72 had bacterial growth while 4 had none. The bacterial or fungal genus isolated were Staphylococcus sp 31.6%, followed by Escherichia sp 22.4%, Klebsiella sp 18.4%, Streptococcus sp 17.1%, Corynebacterium sp 2.6%, Pseudomonas sp 1.3% and Candida sp 1.3%. Resistance by the isolated microbes was greatest to the two sulphonamides; sulphamethoxazole 17.3% and cotrimoxazole 17.3%, followed by chloramphenicol 16.6%, nalidixic acid 15.9%, ampicillin 15.2%, tetracycline 11.2%, streptomycin 5.1%, kanamycin 2.8% and gentamicin 2.2% in that decreasing order. In order to alleviate this problem of increase in antimicrobial resistance, the study recommended that cases detected are promptly and vigilantly treated with suitable antimicrobials after culture and sensitivity tests have been carried out. </em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Physical-Chemical Water Quality Asessment of Rivers within the Athi River Basin Area, Kenya 2022-11-19T11:45:53+00:00 P. Masime K. K’Oreje F. Chebii M. Okoth S. Lutta K. Demeestere P. De Wispelaere <p><em>One of the main issues affecting Kenya's management of its water resources is pollution. In this study, selected physical-chemical characteristics were used to evaluate the river water quality in the Athi Basin area. Standard techniques for examining water and wastewater were used to examine the parameters. The pH (6.4 to 8.5) was generally in compliance with portable water regulations, despite the temperature varying between 20.4℃ and 27.8℃. The electrical conductivity (EC) ranged from 70 µS/cm to 1750 µS/cm while total dissolved solids (TDS) recorded concentration ranging from 43 mg/L to 1085 mg/L. Total suspended solids (TSS, </em><em>10 - 233 mg/L</em><em>), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, 1 - 600 mg/L) and chemical oxygen demand (COD, 13-1000 mg/L) wide range of concentrations was observed. Other factors that are assessed are sulphide (&lt;1-6 mg/L), nitrate (ND - 36 mg/L), orthophosphate (7 -18 mg/L) and Ammonia (0.31-52 mg/L). The greatest concentration values were found at sampling locations in informal settlements, indicating direct residential wastewater flow into river systems. The results also suggest that the basin may have been contaminated by industrial and agricultural operations. Some physical-chemical characteristics, such as BOD and COD concentrations, in effluent samples that the wastewater treatment facilities released into the rivers were greater than the KEBS and WHO permissible thresholds, suggesting that they were unfit for domestic consumption, especially drinking. Therefore, more effort should be made by the concerned government departments and organizations to solve the problems with pollution in the basin.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Making Kenyan Urban Transportation System Smart: The Case of Eldoret Municipality 2022-11-19T11:56:12+00:00 J. K. Cheboi F. Daudi J. K. Ngetich K. Kipkorir J. Sumukwo J. Njogu <p><em>Transportation systems are the fundamental to the economic prosperity of any nation. Nonetheless, transportation itself more so the use of automobiles has unintended negative environmental impacts that threaten the very existence of humanity through production of green house gases leading to climate change. Other negative impacts of transportation include compromise with human safety through traffic accidents causing injury and even deaths. This study sought to establish urban mobility patterns within Eldoret Municipality as a means to establish a green transportation planning. Traffic modal split was measured at different Gordon points on the major routes traversing through Eldoret Municipality. Findings illustrates that transportation in Eldoret municipality is unsustainable. There is heavy use of automobiles as compared to greener options such as cycling and walking. The study concludes that in order to achieve green urban transportation system there is need for an integrated approach in the implementation of transportation policy. Provision of feasible and convenient alternatives to car use, provision of high-quality public transportation systems as well as secure and opportune walking and cycling facilities have been recommended as opportunities for making urban transport green in Eldoret Municipality</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Phenotypic Variation of Four Populations of Osyris lanceolata Hochst. & Steud. (African Sandalwood) in Kenya 2022-11-19T12:06:30+00:00 K. P. Andiego O. G. Dangasuk F. D. Otieno S. F. Omondi W. D. Odee <p><em>African sandalwood (Osyris lanceolata) is a dioecious and semi-parasitic tree at risk of extinction due to overexploitation for its essential oil, a product used in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. This study therefore determined the level of morphological variation in four kenyan populations of O. lanceolata, namely Gwasii, Kabarnet, Marigat, and Kitui, with the objective of recommending conservation strategies for the species. morphological traits were analysed using Anova and coefficient of variation. genetic similarity was analysed using a</em><em> multivariate analysis </em><em>using </em><em>euclidean distance and a dendrogram constructed based on unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA)</em><em>. Results showed that, Gwasii trees had significant higher diameter at breast height (dbh), crown diameter (crd), and flower diameter (fld) than the rest. female trees had greater growth and floral mean values than male trees as observed in tree height (het), dbh, crd, flower length (fll) and fld. Analysis based on euclidean distance clearly distinguished Gwasii population from the Kitui, Kabarnet, and Marigat populations, </em><em>which individuals revealed genetic interrelationship. in conclusion, morphological traits revealed great individual interspersion within and among populations revealing population genetic interrelationships. Study recommended that Gwasii population should be prioritized for ex-situ conservation while in-situ conservation should target plus trees in entire populations. </em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Labeobarbus altianalis along River Molo in Lake Baringo Basin - Kenya 2022-11-19T12:13:19+00:00 E. J. Chemoiwa <p><em>The condition of fish in an aquatic ecosystem is normally studie</em><em>d</em><em> using the length-weight relationship </em><em>because </em><em>this provides allometric and isometric parameters</em><em>, which informs the general wellbeing of the fish.</em><em> The aim of this study, therefore, was to analyse the length-weight relationship and condition factor of Labeobarbus altianalis along River Molo in the Lake Baringo basin, Kenya. The parameters ‘a’ and ‘b’ of the length – weight relationship were estimated using the formula W=aLb. The length and weight relationships of L. altianalis samples studied were found to be highly correlated (r is equal or greater than 0.932). The ‘b’ values in the length-weight relationships of the fishes in the 7 sampled sites ranged between </em><em>1.93 and </em><em>3.2, implying that</em><em> in most of the fish were exposed to poor environmental conditions hence poor growth.</em><em> However, the fish in most sites </em><em>exhibited positive allometric growth. Further, the relative condition factor ranged between 0.79 to 1.53, implying that the condition of the fish in most sites along R. Molo was good. Further study is recommended to cover both dry and wet seasons in order to provide sufficient data and information to inform management for sustainable exploitation and conservation of </em><em>L. altianalis in River Molo</em>.</p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Allelopathic Potential of Centella asiatica Leaves on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Selected Field Crops 2022-11-19T12:23:05+00:00 M. K. Kemboi P. Jeruto L. Mwamburi R. Korir <p><em>Centella asiatica is a small, faintly aromatic, greenish-yellow leafy ubiquitous herbaceous plant of the Apiaceae family. It is a member of a weed community termed Hydrocotylo-Centelletum asiaticae association. Losses due to weeds have been estimated to be even more than those caused by insect pests and diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the allelopathic potential of Centella asiatica. Plant leaves were collected, shade dried followed by extraction using water and ethanol. The extracts were tested against maize, oats, rice, sorghum and wheat seeds. Ten (10) surface sterilized seeds were placed in each Petri dish. 25 millilitres of test extracts were used with double distilled water set as positive control and DMSO set as negative control. This was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications at 25±2°C. The emerged plumule and radicle lengths were recorded after five (5) days and germination percentages calculated. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of Centella asiatica exhibited significant inhibitory effect on plumule and radicle lengths of maize, oats, rice, sorghum and wheat (p = 0.0000). On the number of seeds germinated, it showed increasing number of seeds germinated with reducing concentration of extracts. Oats and wheat did not germinate on ethanol extracts. Maize had the highest germination percentage of 97.5 while oats had the lowest of 24.17 in aqueous extracts. The ANOVA p-values of 0.0000 means that the leaf extracts of Centella asiatica had a statistically significant effect on plumule and radicle lengths of the test plants at P ≤ 0.05. It suggests that the extracts of C. asiatica interfered with the germination and growth of the test plants. This implies that there is a high likelihood for poor growth performance of these major staples in the presence of C. asiatica. The good allelopathic activity of C. asiatica can be utilised for making herbicides crucial for weed control. The results of study may be used to assess allelopathic potential against other field crops as well as further studies on the growth and development.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Determination of Risk Factors Predisposing Chicken to Influenza A Virus Infection at Uasin Gishu County, Kenya 2022-11-19T12:27:51+00:00 S. N. Carozone M. Ngeiywa R. Salinah <p><em>Influenza A is a highly contagious virus of global health</em><em> concern</em><em> causing significant deaths in chicken. The virus is a threat to poultry production in many countries including Kenya, due to location along key wild bird’s migratory routes</em><em>.</em><em> This study aimed at determination of risk factors predisposing chicken to Influenza A virus infection in Uasin, Gishu County, Kenya.</em><em> To achieve this, age, sex, breed (hybrid and indigenous), vaccination status (avian flu vaccine), restocking source, management systems of chicken and seasonal weather variations were assessed to determine those that are associated with virus infection. </em><em>The study was conducted at the Regional veterinary investigation laboratories (RVIL) in Eldoret. Oropharyngeal swab were collected from 305 sampled chicken brought in by farmers to the laboratory from all the sub-counties of Uasin, Gishu County, Kenya</em><em> for screening of </em><em>suspected zoonotic diseases.</em><em> Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR) was used to diagnose the virus. </em><em>Face to face interviews with farmers who brought their chicken for screening in the laboratory were conducted to gather information on possible confounding factors such as the sex, age, breed, management system of chicken, seasonal weather variation, restocking source and vaccination status of chicken which were recorded using a structured questionnaire. </em><em>Pearson chi square technique was employed to test for statistical significance on differences across data sets at a 95% confidence level. T</em><em>he result showed that there </em><em>was significant difference in influenza A virus infection positivity between hybrid and indigenous breeds (p = 0.000), while age </em><em>(p-0.6992)</em><em>, sex </em><em>(p-0.879)</em><em>, management systems </em><em>(p-0.5747)</em><em>, vaccination status </em><em>(p-0.81),</em><em> restocking source </em><em>(p-0.549)</em><em> and seasonal weather variation </em><em>(p-0.42)</em><em> were not significantly associated with </em><em>Influenza A virus in chicken. In conclusion b</em><em>reed of chicken demonstrated a statistically significant effect as a predisposing factor on the infection by Influenza A virus in chicken in Uasin, Gishu County, Kenya</em><em>. </em><em>The study recommends that </em><em>public health veterinary sectors within the ministry of agriculture from the County should </em><em>create </em><em>awareness to farmers on the transmission, symptoms, control and treatment for Influenza A virus among hybrid and indigenous breeds of chicken.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Taxonomy and Diversity of Vascular Plant Species in Cherangani Forest of Marakwet West in Kenya 2022-11-19T12:37:44+00:00 J. O. Makokha E. W. Njenga I. Malombe B. K. Wanjohi <p><em>The availability of accurate and sufficient information on plant taxonomic groups and similarity measures is crucial for making informed conservation decisions. In many forests, </em><em>due to human population pressure, many species face the risk of extinction, some of which could be possessing solutions to numerous problems facing mankind. However, due to </em><em>inaccessibility caused by extreme isolation and harsh conditions, little research has been done in this field on plants in Cherangani forest station</em><em>.</em><em> This study</em><em> focused on the numbers of various plant taxa and their distribution in Cherangani done in blocks with a view of developing a management database. Standard botanical inventory and Herbarium protocols were used and analysed using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Eight hundred and fifteen (815) species in 129 families and 450 genera respectively were identified. This is an indication that this flora is one of the richest in the country hence a priority conservation spot. Additionally, the blocks vary in species numbers and growth forms, therefore, necessitating varied management. </em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal The Effect of Ecological Factors on the Distribution of Myormoph Rodent Pest Species Infesting the University of Eldoret Farms, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya 2022-11-19T12:49:23+00:00 M. Werunga D. M. Mwaniki F. M. E. Wanjala <p><em>Rodents are recognized ecologically as one of the most important pests of cereals. Rodents occur in a wide range of terrestrial habitat, they are diverse and form an integral part of ecosystem functioning. Rodents are pests of concern in Kenya, as they cause considerable damage to cereal crops before and after harvest and therefore affect food security by impacting on both food availability and safety. However, knowledge of the factors that affect their population and distribution in Kenya is limited. The objective of the research was to determine the effect of ecological factors namely rainfall, relative humidity and temperature on the incidences and distribution of gender, type of species and population myomorph rodent pests infesting maize and wheat farms at University of Eldoret, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Grids of 70 m x 70 m crop cuttings was done in commercial fields of maize and wheat both locally woven live traps and Sherman’s live traps were used to capture rodents with peanut butter and sun dried Omena (Rastrineobola argentea) used as baits. The ecological factors of rainfall, relative humidity and temperature data were obtained from the metrological station based at Eldoret international airport. Three types of myomorph rodent pest species were captured and identified being Mastomys natalensis, Arvicanthis niloticus and Lemniscomys striatus. A Pearson correlation indicated a very weak positive correlation between rainfall and gender (males and females) distribution (r = 0.171, P = 0.001). A very weak linear positive correlation was observed between relative humidity and gender (r = 0.198, P = 0.001) that was statistically significant (P &lt; 0.01). Rainfall and relative humidity had an effect on distribution of gender (males and females). However, there was a very weak positive correlation between temperature and gender in year one and two (r = 0.056, P=0.225; r =0.093 =0.214) and weak negative correlation in year three (r = -0.046, P=0.449) with no statistically significant difference of temperature on gender distribution (P &gt; 0.001). Pearson correlations between ecological factors of rainfall, relative humidity and temperature showed a linear weak correlation with species distribution (r =-0.001, P= 0.986).The ecological factors rainfall, relative humidity were shown to influence species and gender distribution but temperature did not have any notable influence on species distribution during the present study.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal A Review of Morphomeristic Characterization and Classification of Genus Enteromius spp in Africa 2022-11-19T12:58:35+00:00 H. Jepleting J. Wanga E. J. Chemoiwa J. Barasa <p><em>Enteromius is currently represented by 350 valid species, making it the most speciose and widely distributed cyprinid genus on the African continent.</em><em> The Enteromius represents one of the most common genera occurring in almost all river systems across the continent, these fishes are generally difficult to identify because of their very similar body morphology and color pattern, coupled with the lack of revision within the group. Despite this, there are many challenges to adequately conserve the Enteromius because of unsatisfactory taxonomic knowledge of important portions of the genus. In this review, distinctive morphometric characteristics, general characterization and classification of the genus Enteromius occurring in Africa was analyzed. It was established that many species under the genera Enteromius have been mis-identified giving a false impression among the taxa richness. Genus Enteromius is distinguished from other small African diploid smiliogastrin genera distributed in African water bodies (Barboides, Clypeobarbus Barbopsis) based on differences in morphomeristic characteristics. Most occurring differences among Enteromius species are dorsal-fin placement in comparison to anal-fin origin, number of dorsal-fin rays, number of paired nostrils on either side of the snout, eye size, placement in the orbital rim and pigmentation pattern, shape and pattern of mid-lateral scale row. Isolated studies with focusing on a single geographical location resulting to double identification. Since fish under the genera Enteromius spp are sensitive to habitat quality and occurs mostly in small water bodies and headwater streams, the need to conserve catchments to enhance biodiversity. </em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Assessment of the Factors Inhibiting Avitourism Growth in Arabuko Sokoke Forest in Kenya 2022-11-19T13:12:34+00:00 J. N. Koki A. Pepela A. Wamukota F. Kidere <p><em>Avitourism is currently one of the fastest growing sub sectors of ecotourism. In fact, it has the potential of contributing substantial income to the local economy in areas with high bird diversity. Arabuko Sokoke forest (ASF) is a promising bird life destination in Kenya with avitourism potential. However, its development and growth has not been achieved to the desired standards. This paper sought to assess factors that inhibit avitourism growth and development. Mixed research design was used were both quantitative and qualitative data were collected by use of a questionnaire and focus group discussion. The study sampled 353 respondents in four locations within Kilifi County and data was collected. The collected data was analyzed descriptively. About (26.0%) of the local community around Arabuko Sokoke forest are involved in avitourism activities thus contributing towards their livelihoods. However, major avitourism inhibitors in the study area included pollution and poor garbage and sewage disposal (69%), low support from government institutions (48%), corruption and embezzlement of local natural resources (62%) and low adoption and use of avitourism technologies (72%). Additionally, inadequacy of avitourism tools of trade, lack of avitourism policy, lack of requisite guiding trainings and disturbance of avitourism habitats were mentioned. Though Arabuko Sokoke has a potential, the development of avitourism activities and programs as well as avitourism policy to guide its growth and awareness campaign strategies should be initiated. This campaign should target and train the local community and other stakeholders on the value and importance of avitourism as an emerging high value form of tourism.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Effects of Intercropping Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) with Common Beans (Phaseolusvulgaris) on Weed Management in Finger Millet in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya 2022-11-19T13:19:11+00:00 P. Sululu L. Ngode V. Anjichi <p><em>Weed infestation is considered as one of the most important constraints affecting finger millet production causing significant yield losses. Weed management is a critical component of any farming system. Management of weeds is important for enhancing the production of finger millet. Recent research efforts suggested that intercropping legumes with cereals can have potential for weed suppression and may decrease the need to use herbicides. This study was aimed at evaluating the</em><em>effect</em><em>s of intercropping finger millet (Eleusine coracana) </em><em>with common beans (Phaseolusvulgaris) on weed management</em><em>in finger millet </em><em>in Trans - Nzoia County, Kenya. Field experiments were conducted on- farm at Kiminini Sub-County in Trans-Nzoia County. The treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) over two seasons (2020 short rains and 2021 long rains season). The three improved finger millet varieties (Gulu- E, U-15 and P-224) and common bean variety (Rosecoco)</em><em> were used. Each finger millet variety was grown in monoculture and intercropped with beans. The treatments were replicated three times giving a total of 27 plots. The plots measured 1.8m x 1.5m each and a path of 1m was used to separate one plot from the other. Parameters that were recorded during the growing season on weeds include</em><em>d; weed type, weed count and weed biomass. Data collected was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the effects of seasons, treatments and their interaction using the mixed procedure of SAS (Institute 2012) software. The means of seasons, treatments and their interaction were compared by least significance difference at p&lt; 0.05. The weedy treatments recorded the highest weed count and weed biomass. Finger millet-bean intercrop recorded the lowest valuesof weed count and weed biomass. The long rains season recorded significantly higher weed biomass than the short rains season. Intercropping was superior to monocropping in terms of smothering weeds. Small scale farmers in Trans-Nzoia County should be encouraged to grow finger millet varieties intercropped with common bean to assist in weed suppression and improve finger millet yield</em><em>.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malarial Infections by the Marakwet Community in Kenya 2022-11-19T13:30:10+00:00 C. Rotich J. Makwali M. Ngeiywa A. Bowen <p><em>Malaria continues to have a devastating impact on public health in Kenya. Resistance to conventional antimalarial drugs is a threat to the treatment of malaria. Globally, medicinal plants have been used to treat malaria for a long time. The objective of this study was to carry out an ethno- botanical survey to identify medicinal plants used to treat malaria in Marakwet East Sub County. The ethno botanical survey was conducted in Marakwet East Sub County from October, 2020 to August, 2021 through oral interviews using structured questionnaires. The plant materials reported by the traditional practitioners were collected, and further authenticated in the laboratory at the department of Biological Sciences University of Eldoret, where voucher specimens were deposited at the departmental herbarium. The results showed that thirty one medicinal plants belonging to twenty four botanical families are used to treat malaria in Marakwet East Sub County. Capparaceae and Rutaceae were the most preferred families while Ximenia americana, Boscia coriacea, were the most frequently used plant species to treat malaria in Marakwet East Sub County. The results of the current study showed that traditional knowledge still plays an important role in the management of malaria in Marakwet East Sub County. </em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Field Accumulation in Selected Heavy Metal Ions and Associated Health Risks in Irrigation Water, Soil and Tomatoes Collected from Homa Hills, Homabay County, Kenya 2022-11-19T13:40:21+00:00 T. Akenga K. Ayabei E. Kerich P. Kandie V. Sudoi <p><em>Accumulation of metal ions in irrigation water and soils can lead to uptake by food crops. The accumulated heavy metals when ingested pose a threat to human health. The current study intends to assess potential health risk of heavy metal contaminations in irrigation water, soil and tomatoes collected from Homa Hills, Rachuonyo North Sub- County, Homabay County, Kenya. Purposive sampling method was used to collect 10 tomato samples, 10 soil samples and 8 irrigation water samples. The following metal ions were investigated in the tomato, soil and irrigation water samples Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Cobalt (Co) and Iron (Fe). The levels of the metal ions present in the samples collected were determined and quantified using Inductive Couple Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) Perkin Elmer model 8000 DV. The results revealed that all the metal ions concentrations in tomatoes were beyond WHO recommended values except Co. The concentrations of all the metals in the soil were within the recommended levels in agricultural soil. In the irrigation water samples, the concentration of the metal ions was within the recommended values in irrigation water except Fe and Co. t-statistic revealed that the concentration of the metal ion in the tomatoes collected from the two locations (Kanam B and Kokoth Kata) of Rachuonyo North Sub-County did not vary significantly. The concentration of Zn, Cd, Co, Pb, Fe and Cu in tomatoes and irrigation water were significantly different except for Mn (p=0.06). The average concentration of metals in soil and water were significantly different. The calculated translocation factor (TF) for Fe, Cd, Cu and Zn was greater than 1 whereas Co, Pb and Mn TF&lt;1. The concentration of Pb, Mn and Cu in soil and tomatoes showed weak positive correlation whereas all the other had negative correlation. The concentration of all the metals in water and tomatoes showed negative correlation except Co that showed weak positive correlation. The health risk index (HRI) for all the studied metals were less than 1 except for Cd, however, on computation of total target hazard quotient (THQ) the values for all the metals were less than 1. The study reveals that the presence of these metals did not pose any health risk. Since Cd had high values of both HRI and THQ relative to other metals further monitoring to establish its’ source is recommended.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Mapping Landslide Susceptibility Along the Nandi Escarpment in Malava Sub-County Kakamega County, Kenya 2022-11-19T14:01:04+00:00 E. Chepkosgei E. K. Ucakuwun G. M. Nduru <p><em>Landslides may occur in hilly terrain due to a combination of factors like deforestation, heavy precipitation, slope steepness and gravity, land use and cover. Whenever they occur, they may result in </em><em>disasters such as loss of property and/or life. The frequency </em><em>of landslidesin any area may be high if all the factors that trigger them are prevalent. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence the occurrence of slope failure over space and time and produce a landslide susceptibility map of the Nandi Escarpment in Kabras </em><em>area of Malava Sub- County. It also presents the capability of a Remote Sensing and GIS based approach to mapping the susceptibility of hilly terrains, with the Nandi escarpment as a case, to slope failure. A slope failure susceptibility map </em><em>was used to help in identifying strategic points and geographically critical zones that are prone to landslide risks. The study involved generation of landuse/ landcover maps extracted from Satellite Images, which were taken in the years 1973, 1995 and 2006. SRTM DEM 90 m was used in generating slope and contour maps of the area. Soil maps were obtained as secondary data from Moi University Soil Laboratory and Soil Survey of Kenya, while rainfall maps were obtained from the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD)</em><em>, Kakamega County. A slope failure risk map of Kabras region was produced by overlaying all thematic maps and analysis using GIS was conducted after assigning appropriate ranks and weights to respective variables. Focused groups</em><em> discussions were used in data collection and probing historical information on land use changes in the area. The result is a map showing zones with varying degrees of susceptibility to slope failure</em><em> and</em><em> slopes steeper than 54<sup>o</sup> </em><em>was more susceptible to slope failures. It is opined that such a map will enable decision and policy makers to identify and implement suitable mitigation measures, with hopes of forestalling future losses in life and property in the area of study<strong>.</strong> Settlement should be</em><em> limited to slopes of less than 2</em><em>4<sup>o</sup> since, according to this study, slopes higher than this are prone to sliding.</em><em> There is need for Kenya ministry of lands and physical planning to ensure </em><em>sustainable land use activities are conducted in the slopes of various degrees.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal Tobacco Farming Using Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Effect on Soil Quality in Migori County 2022-11-19T14:08:56+00:00 M. M. Nyantika V. Sudoi J. B. Okeyo-Owuor P. Kisinyo <p><em>In Kenya, tobacco is grown in several counties like Migori, Bungoma and Meru counties, the largest producer being China, followed by the USA and India. Whereas tobacco industry argues that tobacco cultivation is a lucrative economic venture for smallholder farmers, studies show the risks associated with tobacco growing outweigh its benefits. These includes the destruction of groundwater resource, river sedimentation systems, soil infertility among others. This study aims to assess effect of soil amendments – organic and inorganic fertilizers- on soil quality. The study was carried out in four sites in Migori County - Mabera, Bondo, Kakrao and Masaba. Tobacco was grown using inorganic fertilizer (DAP and CAN) (TF) at a recommended rate of 60 kg P/ha and 30 kg N/ha; organic fertilizer (manure) (TOM) was applied at recommended rate of 4 t/ha; and Control (TO). Tobacco was planted in a 10 m<sup>2</sup> plots, laid in RCBD, with three replicates. </em><em>Land preparation was done by hand digging using a hoe. Variety 583V was used in the four sites - Bondo, Kakrao, Mabera and Masaba. Normal agronomic practices were carried out throughout the experiment period. </em><em>Data was collected </em><em>management </em><em>on tobacco yield. Soils data was also collected on soil pH, P, SOC and total N. Data was analyzed using GLM and subjected to ANOVA using GENSTAT 12. Means were separated using Tukeys at 5%. On average, soil pH at planting in season one was between 4.72 and 5.51. At harvest, soil pH measured between 4.57 to 5.41. In season two, there was no significant difference (p≤0.05) in the measured soil pH at planting. In season three, mean soil pH at planting stood at 4.89a under T. Masaba soils recorded the lowest soil pH mean under TF (4.72), followed by Kakrao (4.82). Generally, soil pH increased significantly (p≤0.05) TF and TOM when compared to the control, where pH levels decreased marginally. This indicates that high manure in the soil has the ability to absorb or bind hydrogen ions in its humic forms, whereas N fertilizers (DAP) add hydrogen ions to the soil, resulting in high acidity. Slight increase in pH in the control in season three may be due to H<sup>+</sup> ions absorbed from the soil solution by humic substances. Highest mean tobacco yield in season two was recorded under TF. This was in Bondo in season two with a mean of 2.740 t/ha. Most high tobacco yields come from TF treatments which are in the forms of diammonium phosphate or DAP. The rapid growth of tobacco is due to phosphorus and nitrogen uptake. Excessive amounts H<sup>+</sup> ions in reduced soil pH results to fixation and limitation of phosphorus uptake, and this has general adverse effects on tobacco yield. In conclusion, increasing the soil pH inhibited the growth of tobacco plants. Lower soil pH decreased the leaf weight by 0.3%-21.29%. Soil pH is an important factor that affects the growth of tobacco plants as well as the quality and yield of tobacco leaves, and this differs under different soils and climatic conditions.</em></p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Africa Environmental Review Journal